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到底是氣爆聲明還是服貿法案宣導?看國家領袖的政治智慧與氣度◎巴哈姆特

週四 2014年08月14日, 8:56 下午【點此取得本文短網址】

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20140814205543

巴哈姆特 Portland

話說因為是中午吃飯時間寫這篇文章,所以甚麼文章的起承轉合之類的東西就容我在這篇文章中暫時扔掉不去理會。今天這篇只想要說一件事:從政府領導人面對區域性災難的公開回應中看出該領導人的氣度、用心與誠懇。高雄氣爆到現在一週過去了,我們昨天看到堂堂身為中華民國的總統的馬先生出來發表算是第一篇的正式發言。至於他的內容有多糟糕,大家可以看看原文連結就知道是怎麼一回事。

很多媒體人跟社運分子在事後對該篇發言的感想挺一致的:沒有誠意,東牽西扯;要過服貿,謝謝指教。一個國家領導人,面對著全國第二大生產毛額城市的巨大災難,表現出來的態度跟發言內容不但膚淺,還藉機繼續宣傳自己想要推動的政令。這般面孔,這般態度,何其荒唐,一目了然。

其實國民黨跟馬英九執政團隊在這次災難中,可以作得很體面,藉由這個機會凝聚全國人民的民心,拉進兩黨漸行漸遠的政治局勢鴻溝,並且展現出一國領袖的氣度。2012年美國東岸發生因為颶風衫蒂的關係受到大規模的災害;數萬戶人民斷電與四處淹水的狀況讓冬季即在眼前的東岸三州康乃迪克、紐約、紐澤西的災民面臨在無家可歸的狀況下度過寒冬的情形。

然而民主黨籍總統歐巴馬的公開發言與事後與共和黨籍紐澤西州長克里斯一同視災並起共同宣示將會一起努力復原紐澤西州災區的舉動,在當時一度成為美國近年來為數稀少的政壇佳話。

我們來看看歐巴馬當初對全國同胞發表聲明時的內容,其實就可以看出一個領導人如何藉由這類的聲明來彰顯自己團隊的政治智慧:

Well, listen, I just completed not only a meeting with our team here at FEMA and all of our Cabinet officers who are involved in the recovery process along the East Coast, but we also had a conference call with the governors of Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, as well as many of the municipalities who have been directly affected by this crisis and this tragedy.

我剛剛不只結束了跟聯邦緊急事件災害管理中心的團隊與參與東岸救災修復計畫的國會要員的會議,也跟康乃迪克、紐約、紐澤西等受害區域的州長以及基層人員開了會。

We still have a long way to go to make sure that the people of New Jersey, Connecticut, New York, and some of the surrounding areas get their basic needs taken care of and that we start moving back to normalcy.

我們距離讓康乃迪克、紐約、紐澤西等地災民以及周遭區域的基礎民生需求得到滿足並且開始恢復正常生活的階段還有很長的路要走。

A couple of things that we’ve emphasized: Number one, that it is critical for us to get power back on as quickly as possible. And just to give people an example of the kind of work we’re doing — the military, DOD, thanks to the work of Leon and others, have been able to get military transport facilities to move cherry-pickers and personnel from as far away as California to get that equipment into the area so we can start getting some of the power back on as quickly as possible. It is a painstaking process, but we’re
making progress.

(在會議中)我們特別要求幾點:第一,立即恢復供電是最重要的事情。在這一點上,感謝國防部長李昂跟其他人的幫忙,國防部已經動用軍用運輸系統,把最遠有遠從西岸的加州來的各地人力與裝備運往災區,好讓災區能夠盡快恢復供電。(恢復供電)是個需要時間跟心力去進行的作業,但是我們正在一步步地進行。

Number two, we’re getting assets in to pump as much water out as possible. Lower Manhattan obviously is a particularly acute example, but there are problems with flooding that are affecting substations throughout the region. That’s going to continue to be a top priority.

第二:我們正在努力聚集打水用的裝備好盡快將積水清除;曼哈頓下城是個很明顯的案例,不過淹水也影響了很多變電所。我們會把這作業持續當成救災過程的重點。

Number three, making sure that people’s basic needs are taken care of. As we start seeing the weather get a little bit colder, people can’t be without power for long periods of time, without heat for long periods of time. And so what we’re doing is starting to shift to identify where we can have temporary housing outside of shelters so people can get some sense of normalcy. They can have a hot meal; they can have the capacity to take care of their families as their homes are being dealt with.

第三:確定基礎民生需求。當天氣漸漸轉冷,人民無法在沒有供電跟沒有取暖方式的狀況下長期生活。所以我們開始進行確認災民的暫時避難住所,好讓他們可以感到部分的安穩;這樣一來就算他們的家園正在進行重建時,他們有熱食可取用,然後也有能力開始照顧他們的家人。

Number four, debris removal still important. Number five, making sure that the National Guard and other federal assets are in place to help with getting the transportation systems back up and running — that’s going to be critical.

第四:清除災後的殘骸依然是我們的要務。第五:確保國民兵跟聯邦其他資源到位,好盡快讓交通系統恢復運作,這也是很關鍵的一點。

What I told the governors and the mayors is what I’ve been saying to my team since the start of this event, and that is we don’t have any patience for bureaucracy, we don’t have any patience for red tape, and we want to make sure that we are figuring out a way to get to yes, as opposed to no, when it comes to these problems.

我跟各州州長跟市長說了,我從風災開始時就跟團隊一起關注災情;我告訴他們我沒有耐性去讓官僚體系影響救災,我們要努力達成讓所有救災需求與問題都獲得滿足,而不是被拒絕。

The other thing I emphasized, though, is that it is much easier for us to respond if we know what these problems are out in these areas, so if everybody can help publicize the number 800-621-FEMA —
800-621-FEMA — then individuals can register with FEMA and immediately get the assistance that they need.

另外我要在這裡跟大家呼籲的是,如果有各位通報需要幫助的地點與問題的話,救災行動會進行的更順利;所以請大家盡量宣導救災專線電話800-621-FEMA(FEMA = 3362,美國電話號碼中每個數字都有相對應的英文字母),讓有需要的人撥打給救災中心,好讓他們能夠立即獲得援助。

And so the more that folks in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut understand that there are a lot of resources available for them, not just with respect to housing, but also with respect to childcare, medicine, a whole range of support, then we want to make sure that they contact us as soon as possible if they’re in distress because help is available.

所以如果在康乃迪克、紐約、紐澤西等地災民可以了解不只是居住方面,在醫療、幼兒服務跟其他方面的援助上,政府都有充分的資源幫助災民;如果有任何需要的話,請災民們不要客氣盡快打電話給我們,因為我們的資源絕對足夠。

Let me just close by saying this: Obviously we’ve now seen that after the initial search and rescue, the recovery process is difficult and it’s painful. But the governors at the local level — Governors Christie, Cuomo, and Malloy — they are working around the clock, their teams are working around the clock. We are incredibly grateful to the heroism and hard work of our first responders, many of whom themselves have had their homes flooded out. Our hearts continue to go out to those families who have been affected and who have actually lost loved ones — that’s obviously heartbreaking.

在結尾之前,還請讓我說一句話:很明顯的我們現在在搜救跟重建的初期階段,是痛苦且艱困的。但是各州的州長:紐澤西州長Christie、紐約州州長Cuomo跟康乃迪克州州長Malloy跟他們的團隊都在挑燈夜戰。我們非常感激英勇的消防員跟救護人員的努力,就算很多救護人員自己的家園被大水淹沒了依然努力救災。我們持續地為那些被風災影響並且傷害到的災民祈福,尤其是那些失去親朋好友的災民,很明顯的(那樣的經歷)是令人心碎的。

But I’m confident that we can continue to make progress as long as state, local and federal officials stay focused. And I can assure you everybody on this team, everybody sitting around the table has made this a number-one priority and this continues to be my number-one priority.

但是只要州政府與中央都一起專注在救災行動上,我有信心我們可以持續並且有效地達成進度。我可以保證現在在場與會的所有人都會持續地把救災行動當成他們首要的任務。

There’s nothing more important than us getting this right. And we’re going to spend as much time, effort and energy as necessary to make sure that all the people in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut know that the entire country is behind them in this difficult recovery effort. We are going to put not just 100 percent, but 120 percent behind making sure that they get the resources they need to rebuild and recover.

現在沒有任何事情比順利並且有效地完成救災這件事情更重要。我們將持續投注時間跟人力與資源,讓在康乃迪克、紐約、紐澤西等地災民知道全國人民都在關心並且會在艱困的重建過程中在他們的背後給予支持跟援助。我們不會只作到百分之一百,而會盡到百分之一百二十的努力,好讓災民們可以獲得他們所需的援助,重建他們的家園。

短短的七百多字的聲明,歐巴馬不但不分黨派地給予所有災區地方首長肯定與嘉勉,甚至積極地表明聯邦政府絕對會為地方災民出錢出力,重建家園的決心。對於災區所立即須要的援助項目,歐巴馬也在聲明裡詳實列出,表示自己理解災害波級的範圍。在這次的風災處理過程中,歐巴馬甚至跟他黨州長克里斯數次到現場勘災,在最前線了解災情狀況,並且將主要管理救災預算與計畫復健的細節交由地方首長處理。

其實這類的反應跟行動,在全世界各國領袖階級來說並不稀有。沒有人能夠否認如此的行為是一種帶有政治價值色彩的安排跟考量,但是我想我們也不能否認實質上對於災區的民眾與當地的地方首長來說是一種心靈上的安慰與鼓勵。這是一種同理心的表現,更是對於災民的傷痛的尊敬。

不管是風災還是氣爆,重大公共災難永遠有一個不能忽略的事實:災民是無辜的。再重複一次:災民永遠都是無辜的。對災區造成任何形式上的傷害,不管是財物上或是心理上,受到傷害的災民所經歷過的傷痛都是一樣的。不管是否為人為疏失或是天災的關係造成人民傷害,一般平民百姓無權決定政策的情況下,當他們面臨到因為過去時代中遺留下的政策疏忽所產生的災難時,或是無可防範的天災時,災民的無能為力在任何情況裡都是相同的值得同情跟令人感嘆。

今天一國領袖如果能夠體會這點事實,那麼我相信他∕她在面對處置救災行動與發言時,就不會像是馬英九總統的行動:不直接跟高雄市長進行災情了解,放縱手下跟行政院對於高雄市申請震災預算處處阻難,更試圖藉由氣爆災難的發言機會跟處理過程宣傳自己支持的法案跟高雄市長候選人。

寫到這裡,我只想說,高雄的政府官員、救災人員跟災民們都辛苦了。我們無法挽回那些已經逝去的性命跟已經在災民心中所留下的傷痕,但是是否至少,是否至少我們能要求在重建修復的過程裡,中央政府跟國家領導人不要繼續在災民的傷口上繼續灑鹽了呢?

註一:馬英九總統氣爆事件聲明聯結:http://ppt.cc/gwju

註二:歐巴馬2012年11月3日災後聯合記者會聲明:http://ppt.cc/eHfS

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